Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg Apexmed® - Dr. Dr. Christian Porsche, Neurologe in Salzburg


A sudden onset of neurological incidence might indicate a neurological emergency. Therefore we strongly recommend visiting the emergency room of the nearest hospital.

Phone number: 144

Only in a hospital the neccessary diagnostics – especially concerning imaging – are available.

Do not lose time, because: „Time is brain!“

Another recommendation: Always take a list with yourself with essential medical information:
–  Previous diseases
–  Medication
–  Allergies

It helps saving time!



Procedure at the doctor:

… actually obvious … but sometimes full of misunderstandings? In order to create clarity here, this article has been included. It provides information about the successive steps to be taken by the doctor – comparable to the steps on a staircase …

Structure of the nervous system:

The upright walk:

The article offers a look back at the evolution and the formation of living beings including their modes of locomotion: without legs in water (fish), without legs on land (snake), with 4 legs on land (lizard), with 2 legs on land (humans) . This requires adjustments in terms of balance and supporting skeleton as well as ensuring a free leg.

Thunderclap Headache:

The article deals with the EMERGENCY “thunderbolt headache”, which must be regarded as an indication of a certain cerebral haemorrhage, a so-called “subarachnoid haemorrhage” (SAB) until proven otherwise. The spectrum of complaints can be very different: from “only” severe headaches to coma !!! Rapid contact with an emergency room is therefore necessary, where the appropriate diagnostics will be carried out using head imaging, nerve fluid sampling and, if necessary, angiography. The cause is often a vascular weak point, a so-called “aneurysm”, which should be treated accordingly over time. The video also briefly outlines various types of aneurysms and their treatment options (clipping, coiling, stenting).

Gait disorders:

The series gait disorders – divided into 3 parts – playfully discusses various disorders in walking, including: waddling gait, restraint limping, Parkinson’s gait, stepping gait, “iron gait”, scissor gait, atactic gait disorder, choral gait disorder, psychogenic gait disorder, “intermittent disease”, spinal tightness, and the unsafe walk.

Immune system – “The little 1×1”:

This post is intended to provide a simple overview of this complex topic. It contains understandably characteristic components of the cellular and humoral defense as well as the unspecific and specific immune system; these include: phagocytes, the complement system, antigen presenting cells (APC), T and B lymphocytes and antibodies.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

A common cause of “tingling in the hands” is carpal tunnel syndrome, or CTS. According to the literal translation of the Latin name, it is “nocturnal tingling arm pain”. The article explains the cause, phases of the disease, diagnostics and therapeutic options for a CTS.


Basic components of headache treatment are medical history, neurological examination, and often head imaging as well. Different types of headache are classified (with mostly inconspicuous findings in the examination and imaging) based on so-called “diagnostic criteria”. You can also “get to know” your own headaches better by keeping a headache calendar and individually helpful measures can be more easily recognized. The headache therapy has – generally speaking – 3 pillars (acute-drug, prophylactic-drug, non-drug), whereby it is advisable to exhaust the “non-drug measures” as much as possible. In addition, the clinical picture of “drug overuse headache” is worth knowing and part of the article.

Tingling in the feet:

The article gives an overview of the components that can lead to tingling in the feet. Then neurological causes are broken down.

Tingling in the hands:

The article gives an overview of the components that can lead to tingling in the hands. Then neurological causes are broken down.

Positional vertigo:

In the article “Positional vertigo” (in detail: “benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, BPLS”) the “equilibrium part” of the vestibulo-cochlear organ is explained in more detail on the basis of this very common problem. The occurrence of a brief spinning vertigo attack after turning over in bed is particularly characteristic of BPLS, in which 95% of the posterior semicircular canal is affected. BPLS is caused by otoliths that have become jammed together, such a conglomerate exerting a very great stimulus on the sensory hairs and leading to dizziness. Finally, the therapy using positioning exercises is shown and explained in the article.

Meralgia paraesthetica:

… is a complicated name for complaints of a pinched cutaneous nerve in the area of the lateral pelvic / inguinal ligament region. There may be discomfort in the area of the lateral thigh. The subject is harmless and has a very good prognosis.


The “prototype” of a migraine with the associated diagnostic criteria for migraine HEADACHE and for a migraine AURA is communicated. In addition, classification, “types of play”, options for action (such as keeping a headache calendar) and therapeutic approaches are addressed.


“Movember” is one of the most successful health prevention campaigns, in which men grow a mustache in the month of November. This video shows where “Movember” comes from, what the exact purpose is and what my access to it was and how I deal with it today. The video was recorded in November 2020.

Neck pain:

Consultation with a neurologist is advisable for neck pain radiating to the arm. This clarifies by means of anamnesis and neurological examination whether a so-called radiculopathy is present. Of course, a video cannot replace a visit to the doctor.

Neural plasticity:

The contribution was given as part of the DGN Congress 2016 in Mannheim. He clearly explains how “neuronal plasticity” occurs through the simultaneous activity of nerve cells. This can be seen in changes on different levels, such as in the behavior of a living being (see Pavlov), in “remodeling processes” or in the regulation of nerve cells (see Kandel). I dealt with the topic as part of my scientific doctoral thesis and here I summarize the conclusions I have drawn and their application to life.

Optical phenomena:

The article gives an overview of various optical phenomena, including: shadow play, reflections, unreal objects, picture puzzles, pictures from the “Magic Eye” series, flicker contrasts and the Fraser spiral.

Parkinson’s 1:

The first Parkinson’s article deals with the classic cause and symptoms of the Parkinson’s spectrum. The core symptoms of the so-called “shaking paralysis” are tremor (shaking), rigor (rigidity), akinesia (lack of movement) and postural instability. Other features are mentioned in the article, such as ointment face, Oreiller psychique, impairment of fine motor skills, reduced font size, reduced smell and taste and a tendency to constipation.

Parkinson’s 2:

The second Parkinson’s article deals with the diagnosis. In addition to anamnesis and neurological examination, a simple CT scan of the head and a blood sample can be taken to rule out Wilson’s disease. A treatment attempt with Madopar is not uncommon. There are some early symptoms, but the transition to Parkinson’s disease is not certain, so this circumstance is communicated with caution to avoid unnecessary worries. Further diagnostics also include the DaT-SPECT examination and brain parenchymal sonography.

Parkinson’s 3:

The third Parkinson’s article is about the therapy. On the one hand, this includes drug therapy, whereby the so-called “gold standard” L-DOPA + benserazide (Madopar) is primarily discussed. On the other hand, other tips and tricks are mentioned that can also contribute to alleviating symptoms: drinking enough, physiotherapy (flexibility, balance training), independent movement, rhythmic music, speech therapy, optimizing sleep, checks … and as simply as possible feeling good.


The common clinical picture “polyneuropathy” – often described as “walking on the clouds” – is damage to several peripheral nerves through a systemic process (or several). There are around 500 different causes for this, whereby recognizing the respective cause (s) makes sense. The two parts are devoted to the spectrum of complaints, diagnostics, research into the causes and the various treatment options.

Restless legs syndrome:

The article describes the main criteria of RLS and how it is differentiated from polyneuropathy, which is also common.

back pain:

“Back pain” is very common and can occur for a variety of reasons: vertebral body fractures, joint pathologies, problems with the intervertebral discs, etc. The structure of an intervertebral disc is explained and the terms prolapse and prutrusio are distinguished from one another. Furthermore, diagnostic components are outlined: anamnesis, neurological examination, imaging … and also therapeutic options: pain and physiotherapy (“The dynamic duo”), possibly local infiltration or possibly surgery.

Sleep chronology:

We spend an unproblematic night together or prepare for it. The contribution includes topics such as: yawning, rest ritual, tips for falling asleep, the correct sleeping temperature and position, change of position, deep sleep, the tendency to wake up, the “hour of the wolf”, morning dreams and … getting up.

Sleep facts:

The article “Sleep Facts” provides various insights such as the “discovery” of the internal clock, regulatory mechanisms in sleep and the various sleep stages in the EEG. In addition, various sleep strategies in the animal kingdom and cultural differences in sleep are presented.

Sleep problems:

We are going through a problematic night together 🙁 … The article includes various sleep disorders such as: polyneuropathy (PNP), restless legs syndrome (RLS), depression, snoring, jet lag, sleepwalking, nocturnal urination, nightmares, Parkinson’s disease, narcolepsy, pain and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS ), although there are more detailed special articles on some topics.


This article gives an exemplary overview of the complex topic. In its two parts, different possible causes of dizziness are dealt with, including: Circulatory system & blood circulation, brain damage, topic VIII. Cranial nerve, ear, eye, gait unsteadiness, psyche, older age, mix of different components and vestibular migraine.

Visual disturbances:

Using various disturbed visual impressions, necessary functions / structures on the “way to the image” are playfully worked out. These visual disorders / topics include: black image, flickering, jagged, soot rain & Co, double images, blurred vision, sometimes black image, glaucoma, dry eyes and hallucinations.

Tension headache:

The “prototype” of tension headaches with the associated diagnostic criteria is presented in the article. In addition, classification, causes, options for action (such as keeping a headache calendar) and therapeutic approaches are addressed.

Spinal tightness – cervical:

The article “Spinale Tightening – cervical” describes symptoms, diagnostics and treatment options for such a situation. In contrast to “Spinale Enge – lumbar” the spinal cord can still be damaged at the cervical level.

Spinal tightness – lumbar:

The article “Spinal narrowing – lumbar” describes symptoms, diagnostics and treatment options for such a situation. In contrast to “Spinal narrowing – cervical”, no spinal cord is damaged at the lumbar level below L2. A narrowing at this level only affects the exiting nerve roots of the so-called “cauda equina” (= horse’s tail).

Sulcus ulnaris syndrome:

In the ulnar sulcus syndrome, the ulnar nerve in the so-called “ulnar groove” on the elbow is irritated or even damaged. Diagnostics and therapy are discussed in the video, which cannot replace a specialist co-assessment.


The fear of dementia is very widespread from a certain age and is usually triggered by forgetfulness in everyday life. The video describes alternative reasons for forgetfulness, such as depression (= pseudodementia), as well as clinical differences in the various cerebral damage patterns (cortical vs. subcortical damage). The diagnosis of dementia is a specialist assessment with the help of additional diagnostics. In the article, the essential diagnostic components, consisting of anamnesis, external anamnesis, neuropsychological testing and head imaging as well as the current status of therapy options for dementia are explained. In the context of diagnostics, an unfounded concern can sometimes be eliminated or alternative diseases can be revealed, which may be easily treatable. My personal assessment of how to deal with the onset of dementia symptoms in retirement age round off the lecture. Of course, a video cannot replace a visit to the doctor and individual advice.

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